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Seven Backyards
Moths...Moths...Moths...and their Habitats...and other stuff....
Several Long-Term Backyard
Studies in the U.S. and Australia


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REFERENCES
Annotated REFERENCE LIST

Listed below are ALL of the works that are referred to at this website, under one or more of the various links.  Also included are other publications (not specifically mentioned under any of the links), which are “classics” in their fields, and so warrant inclusion on that basis alone. [Two examples of the latter are the book by Standen (1950) and the essay by Wheeler (1928, 1967), both of which should be required reading for anyone claiming to be a “scientist” - and everyone else hoping to become so labelled!!  And don't overlook Hart (2002) or Salaman (1995), both cogent essays on closely related topics.] Starred titles (*) are of particular relevance at one (or more) of the links. Titles in green are entirely, or mostly, botanical.

This list is divided into two sections: (1) The Northern Hemisphere and (2) The Southern Hemisphere (the latter referring primarily to Australian topics, or to the link on growing stapeliad succulent plants in Western Australia (a project undertaken from 1973-1978).

(1) The NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

  1. ADLER, P.H. (1982) - Soil- & puddle-visiting habits of moths.  J. Lepid. Soc. 36(3): 161-173.
  2. ALLAN, P.B.M. (1943-1949) - Talking of Moths, A Moth-Hunter's Gossip, Moths & Memories, etc..  England:  E.W. Classey Ltd..   [interesting insights and discussions]
  3. ALLEN, T.J. & BROCK, J.P. (2005) - Caterpillars in the Field & Garden: A Field Guide to the   Butterfly Caterpillars of North America.  New York: Oxford Univ. Press (232 pp.)  [ISBN 0-19- 514987-4].
  4. BALDWIN, B.G. ed. (2002) - The Jepson Desert Manual: Vascular Plants of SE. California (626 pp.) Univ. of Calif. Press (Berkeley & Los Angeles) [ISBN 0-520-22775-1]
  5. BARZUN, Jacques (        ) - Teacher in America.
  6. BAUER, H.L. (1936) - Moisture relations in the chaparral of the Santa Monica Mts.  Ecol. Mon. 6(3): 409-454.
  7. BEAUCHAMP, M. (1986) - A Flora of San Diego Co., Calif.  National City, CA:  Sweetwater River Press (241 pp.) [ISBN 0-931950-00-7]
  8. BELZER, T.J. (1984) - Roadside Plants of Southern California (158 pp.) Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Pub. Co. [ISBN 0-87842-158-0]
  9. *BENSON, Lyman (1979) - Plant Classification, 2nd ed. (901 pp.).  D.C. Heath & Co.   [ISBN 0- 669-01489-3]   [Some of the best illustrations of botanical terms ever published; click here for reproductions of these most useful drawings.]
  10. BLANCHARD, A. (1976) - Presidential address, 1975:  on the importance of more collecting & study of moths.  J. Lepid. Soc. 30(1): 1-4. [see also Rindge (1965) & Mattoni (1981)]
  11. BOWERS, J.E. (1993) - Shrubs & Trees of the SW. Deserts (140 pp.) Tucson, AZ: SW. Parks & Monuments Assoc. [ISBN 1-877856-34-7]
  12. BROOMFIELD, J. (1997) - Other Ways of Knowing.  Rochester, VT.:  Inner Traditions.   [ISBN 0-892816-14-7]  Well-trained seals and parrots will find this book extremely threatening, and will predictably dismiss it (a much-needed cage rattler, if we are ever to escape the insane pathways to self-destruction that we are now following) ...
  13. BUCKETT, J.S. (1964) - Revision of the North American genus Behrensia (Noctuidae).  J. Res.   Lepid. 3(3): 129-144.
  14. CHASE, J.S. (1913) - California Coast Trails (A Horseback Ride from Mexico to Oregon.) (326 pp.) Boston & NY: Houghton Mifflin Co.
  15. CLENCH, H.K. (1957) - The “pumping” behavior of certain moths at water.  Lepid. News 11:  18-21. [see also Welling (1958), Lep. News 12: 170-72]
  16. ________ (? 1996) - Spineless Wonders.
  17. CONNIFF, Richard (1996) - “When it comes to moths, nature pulls out all the stops”.  Smithsonian mag. 26(11): 68-81.
  18. COOPER, W.S. (1922) - The broad-sclerophyll vegetation of Calif.  Carnegie Inst. Pub. #319.
  19. COTT, H.B. (1966) - Adaptive Coloration in Animals.  London:  Methuen & Co. Ltd. (508 pp. + 48 plates).  [the classic on this topic]
  20. COVELL, C.V. (1984) - A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America (Peterson series).  Boston:  Houghton Mifflin Co. (496 pp. & 64 plates).
  21. *DALE, N. (1986) - Flowering Plants of the Santa Monica Mts.  The Calif. Native Plant Soc. & Capra Press (Santa Barbara) (239 pp.)  Superbly illus. color guide; the photos are exquisite! [ISBN 0- 88496-239-3]
  22. DONAHUE, J.P. (1972) - McFarland moth collection donated to the Nat. Hist. Museum of Los Angeles County.  J. Lepid. Soc. 26(2): 108.
  23. EHRLICH, P.R. (1970) - The Population Bomb.  Ballentine Books.
  24. EHRLICH, P.R. & RAVEN, P.H. (1964) - Butterflies & plants: a study in coevolution.  Evolution 18(4): 586-608.
  25. ELIOT, I.M. & SOULE, C.G. (1902) - Caterpillars & Their Moths.  N.Y.:  The Century Co. (302 pp. & many photos).
  26. *FERRIS, C.D. (1986) - Presidential address:  Unexplored horizons - the role of the amateur lepidopterist.  J. Lepid. Soc. 40(4): 247-54. [see also Blanchard (1976) & Miller (1986)]
  27. FIBIGER, M. & LAFONTAINE, J.D. (2004) - A review of the higher classific. of the Noctuoidea (Lepid.) with special ref. to the Holarctic fauna (pp.1-75).  Esperiana, Buchreihe zur Entomologie, Bd. 11: 7-690.  Schwanfeld.  [ISBN 3-938249-01-3] (see also Lafontaine & -)
  28. FORBES, W.T.M. (1958) - Caterpillars as botanists.  Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Ent. 1: 313-317.
  29. FULTZ, F.M. (1927) - The Elfin Forest of California.  Los Angeles: The Times-Mirror Press.
  30. GILBERT, L.E. & RAVEN, P.H. (1975) - Coevolution of Animals & Plants.  Austin:  Univ. of Texas Press.
  31. HARDWICK, D.F. (1971) - The “phenological date” as an indicator of the flight period in noctuid moths.  Canad. Ent. 103: 1207-1216.
  32. HARRIS, R.A. (1979) - A Glossary of Surface Sculpturing.  Occas. Papers in Ent. #28 - Calif. State Dept. Food & Agric., Sacramento (31 pp.)
  33. HART, W. (2002) - The Suppression of dissent in “science”.  Nexus New Times (mag.), July- Aug. 2002: 37-44.  [see also Salaman (1995), Standen (1950), Wade (2000)] This very important essay describes and documents how the “science” establishment (predictably) reacts to conflicting or “inconvenient” findings by denigrating, harassing, rejecting or ignoring the REAL SCIENTISTS who dare to reveal them - exactly as was described at length in the book by Standen (1950), over half a century ago!!  NOTHING much has changed (with ref. to these transparent attempts at the manipulation of truth and retaining control), other than that the distinction between “science”, religion & politics has NOW become even more blurred than it was in the past.  How very unfortunate indeed for all of the sincere seekers out there (or, is it suckers??)....
  34. **HODGES, R.W. (Ed.), et al (1983) - Check List of Lepid. of America North of Mexico,   including Greenland.  London: E.W. Classey. [ISBN 0-80696-016-1] - also known as the “MONA” checklist.
  35. HUFFMAN, Margaret (1998) - Wild Heart of Los Angeles:  The Santa Monica Mountains.  Roberts Rinehart Publishers, Niwot, CO. & Dublin, Ireland (195 pp.) [ISBN 1-57098-172-8]
  36. IVEY, R.D. (1995) - Flowering Plants of New Mexico, 3rd ed.  Published by the author (Albuquerque, N.M.) (505 pp.)  [ISBN 0-9612170-2-2] - see esp. pp. 57-60 (one of the best brief summaries “out there” regarding overpopulation and where we are clearly headed at a hight rate of speed....).
  37. *JEPSON, W.L. (1936, 1957) - A Manual of the Flowering Plants of California.  Berkeley & L.A.:  Univ. of Calif. Press (1,238 pp.)
  38. *KEARNEY, T.H. & PEEBLES, R.H. (1960) - ARIZONA FLORA, 2nd ed., with Supp. (1085 pp.).  Univ. of CA Press, Berkeley.
  39. KITCHING, I.J. (1984) - A historical review of the higher classific. of the Noctuidae (Lepid.).  Bull. Brit. Mus.(Nat. Hist.) 49: 153-234.
  40. *KITCHING, I.J. & RAWLINS, J.E. (1998) - The Noctuoidea, pp.355-401 in KRISTENSEN, N.P. (Ed.).  Lepidoptera:  Moths & Butterflies.  Vol.1:  Evolution, systematics & biogeog. - Handbook of Zoology.  Berlin/N.Y.:  Walter de Gruyter (491 pp.)
  41. *LAFONTAINE, J.D. & FIBIGER, M. (2006) - Revised higher classification of the Noctuoidea.  Canad. Ent. 138: 610-635.  (see also Fibiger & -)
  42. LATHROP, E.W. & THORNE, R.F. (1985) - A Flora of the Santa Rosa Plateau.  Southern Calif. Botanists, Special Pub. No.1 (40 pp.)
  43. LAWRENCE, J. & ROWELL, G. (Ed.) (2001) - Wild L.A. - A Celebration of Natural Areas   Around the City.  Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. (192 pp.) [ISBN 1-57805-103-7]
  44. LEHR, J.H. (1978) - A Catalogue of the Flora of AZ. Pub. of Desert Bot. Gard., Phoenix, AZ (printed by Northland Press, Flagstaff) (203 pp.)
  45. LOS ANGELES TIMES (April 1957):  “Boy & Girl win top honors at Science Fair” (re. Anthony Noel McFarland and Yolanda Silva). [see “Back Porch Moth Collection”]
  46. *MABBERLEY, D.J. (1997) - The Plant Book, 2nd ed.  (A Dictionary of the Vascular Plants).  Cambridge Univ. Press.  (Worldwide coverage of all generic names and families.)  (858 pp.)
  47. MATTHEWS, P. (1957) - The Pursuit of Moths & Butterflies - An Anthology.  London:  Chatto & Windus (141 pp.) [essays by 28 famous authors on this topic]
  48. *MATTONI, R.H.T. (1981) - Editorial.  J. Res. Lepid. 18(1): 1, 3. [On where overpopulation & so-called “development” are quite clearly leading.  [See also Blanchard (1976), Ivey (1995: 57- 60), & Rindge (1965).]
  49. *McAULEY, M. (1985) - Wildflowers of the Santa Monica Mts.  Canoga Park, CA:  Canyon Publishing Co. (544 pp.) [ISBN 0-942568-10-9]  Superbly illus. field guide (nearly 500 color photos of the living plants in habitat)
  50. McDUNNOUGH, J. (1938) - Check list of the Lepidoptera of Canada & the U.S.A. Part 1, Macrolepidoptera.  S. Calif. Acad. Sci., Mem.
  51. McFARLAND, N. (1959) - Extreme abundance of Arachnis zuni (Arctiidae) larvae near Albuquerque, New Mexico.  J. Lepid. Soc. 13(4): 236-237. (pdf)   See also: Unpublished note on Arachnis Cocoons: (pdf)
  52. ________ (1961) - Notes on the early stages of Daritis howardi (Pericopidae) from Cabezon Peak, New Mexico.  J. Lepid. Soc. 15(3): 172-74 [see also J. Res. Lepid. 5(1): 36, and larval color photo on front cover of same issue (1966)]. (pdf)
  53. McFARLAND, N. (1963) - The “macroheterocera” (Lepid.) of a mixed forest in western Oregon. M.Sc. thesis, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (152 pp.)
  54. McFARLAND, N. (1964, 1965) - Notes on collecting, rearing, and preserving the larvae of Macrolepidoptera  Part I - J. Lepid. Soc. 18(4): 201-210.  Part II - J. Lepid. Soc. 19(4): 233- 236. (pdf)
  55. **McFARLAND, N. (1965) - The moths (Macroheterocera) of a chaparral plant assoc. in the Santa Monica Mts. of southern California.  J. Lepid. Soc. 4(1): 43-74. [= The basis of the web- link entitled Back Porch Moth Collection]
  56. ________ (1966) - Overcoming difficulties with the pupae of Euproserpinus phaeton mojave (Sphingidae) in captivity.  J. Res. Lepid. 5(4): 249-252. (pdf)
  57. ________ (1967) - Spring moths (Macrohet.) of a natural area in NE. Kansas (a deciduous oak/hickory woodland).  J. Res. Lepid. 6(1): 1-18. (pdf)
  58. ________ (1970) - Botanical names in entomological papers & habitat studies.  J. Res. Lepid. 9(2): 89-96. (pdf)
  59. ________ (1972A) - Notes on describing, measuring, preserving & photographing the eggs of Lepidopter.  J. Res. Lepid. 10(3): 203-214. [A superior way to obtain perfect egg specimens for S.E.M. photos, among various other topics.] (pdf)
  60. ________ (1972B) - Egg photographs depicting 40 species of southern Australian moths.  J. Res.  Lepid. 10(3): 215-247. (pdf)
  61. ________ (1973) - Some observations on the eggs of moths & certain aspects of first instar larval behavior.  J. Res. Lepid. 12(4): 199-208. [“rain-hatching eggs” & active post-eclosion larval dispersal prior to any feeding, etc.] (pdf)
  62. ________ (1974) - In memory of Eileen Victoria & James Otto Wilson.  Aust. Ent. Mag. 2(2): 40-42.
  63. ________ (1975) - Larval foodplant records for 106 species of N. American moths.  J. Lepid.   Soc. 29(2):  112-125. (pdf)
  64. ________ (1976) - Hilltopping & defence behavior in a diurnal agaristid moth.  Aust. Ent.   Mag. 3(2): 25-29 [regarding Comocrus behri in Western Australia] (pdf)
  65. ________ (1977) - Introduction to Howatharra Hill Reserve in the Moresby Ranges, near Geraldton, Western Australia (32 pp.).  (Printed by Geraldton Newspapers.)
  66. ________ (1979) - Annotated list of larval foodplant records for 280 species of Australian moths.  J. Lepid. Soc. 33 (Supp. to #3): i-ii + 1-72. (pdf)
  67. ________ (1988) - Portraits of South Australian Geometrid Moths.  Lawrence, Kansas:  Allen Press (400 pp. and 1400 photographs). [ISBN 0-935868-32-1]
  68. **________ & COLBURN, P.W. (1968) - Notes on the “original” vegetation of a single locality in the eastern Santa Monica Mts., California.  Lasca Leaves 18(1): 1-18. (pdf pp. 1-11) (pdf pp. 12-18)
  69. *McLAUGHLIN, S.P. & BOWERS J.E. (Oct. 1992) - Flora of the Huachuca Mts., Cochise County, AZ:  Progress report to management agencies (37 pp.).
  70. *MILLER, L.D. (1986) - Presidential address, 1984: A tribute to the amateur.  J. Lepid. Soc. 40(1): 1-7.  [see also Ferris (1986)]
  71. MOORE, B.P. (1978) - Life on Forty Acres.  England:  E.W. Classey (184 pp.)
  72. **MUNZ, P.A. (1974) - A Flora of Southern California.  Berkeley & Los Angeles:  Univ. of Calif. Press (1,086 pp.).  [ISBN 0-520-02146-0]
  73. NABOKOV, V. (1966) - Speak, Memory:  An Autobiography Revisted.  New York:  G.P.     Putnam (316 pp.).
  74. *PARFITT, B.D. & CHRISTY, C.M. (June 1992) - Coronado National Memorial plant checklist:  A synonymized list of the vascular plants (25 pp.).
  75. PETERSON, Alvah (1960-1963) - Egg photographs depicting about 120 spp. of eastern North American moths:  5 articles in the Florida Entomologist, 43(1): 1-7; 44(3): 107-114; 45(2): 81- 87; 45(3): 109-119; 46(2): 169-182.
  76. POOLE, R.W. (1970) - Convergent evolution in the larvae of two Penstemon-feeding geometrids.  J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 43: 292-97. [ref. to Meris alticola Hulst & Neoterpes graefiaria (Hulst), both ennomines.]
  77. POULTON, E.B. (1887) - The experimental proof of the protective value of colour & markings in insects in ref. to their vertebrate enemies.  Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.:  191-274.
  78. **RAVEN, P.H., Thompson, H.J. & Prigge, B.A. (1986) - Flora of the Santa Monica Mts.,   California, 2nd ed. (181 pp.).  Southern Calif. Botanists, Special Pub. No.2, Univ. of Calif. (L.A.).
  79. *RINDGE, F.H. (1965) - The importance of collecting NOW!  J. Lepid. Soc. 19(4): 193-195.  [see also Blanchard (1976) and Mattoni (1981)]
  80. ROBERTSON, James (1970) - A new species of Pleocoma from southern California.  Pan-  Pacific Ent. 46(2): 106-111.  [ref. to the “rain beetle”, P. octopagina, first discovered floating in our reservoir at White Cliff Ranch, near Valyermo, CA (1958)] (pdf)
  81. RUITER, L. de (1952) - Some experiments on the camouflage of stick caterpillars.  Behaviour 4: 222-232.
  82. ________ (1956) - Counter-shading in caterpillars: an analysis of its adaptive significance.  Arch.  Neer. Zool. 11: 285-341.  [see also Cott, 1966]
  83. SALAMAN, M.K. (1995) - Whatever happened to “science”?  Health Freedom News, March 1995: 42-43.  (The National Health Fed.) [see also Hart (2002), Standen (1950), Wade (2000)]
  84. SHAH, I. (1987) - Learning How to Learn.  London: Octagon Press (302 pp.) [see esp. pp.83-92]
  85. SKUTCH, A.F. (1979) - The Imperative Call.  Gainesville:  Univ. of Florida Press (331 pp.).
  86. SMITH, C.F. (1976) - The Flora of the Santa Barbara Region, Calif.  Santa Barbara Museum of Nat. Hist. (331 pp.)
  87. STANDEN, Anthony (1950) - Science is a Sacred Cow.  N.Y.:  E.P. Dutton & Co. (221 pp.) Look at the date (nothing has changed)!  [see also Hart (2002), Salaman (1995), Wade (2000)]
  88. STEHR, F.H., editor (1987) - Immature Insects.  Iowa:  Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. (754 pp.)
  89. STEWART, J.M. (1993) - Colorado Desert Wildflowers (120 pp.) Jon Stewart Photography. [ISBN 0-9634909-0-7]
  90. ________ (1998) - Mojave Desert Wildflowers (210 pp.) Albuquerque: Jon Stewart Photography. [ISBN 0-9634909-1-5]
  91. TAYLOR, R.J. (1998) - Desert Wildflowers of North America (350 pp.) Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Pub. Co. [ISBN 0-87842-376-1]
  92. TEALE, E.W. (1962) - The Thoughts of Thoreau.  N.Y.:  Dodd, Mead & Co. (311 pp.)  [Hundreds of brief quotes, arranged by topic]
  93. WADE, G. (2000) - “Vibratory Energy Medicine” (Can you say “moooo”?) Amer. Inst. of Rehabilitation (ph. 818/ 623-7393).  E-mail: Garywade@chek.com. [see also Hart (2002), Salaman (1995), Standen (1950).]
  94. WAGNER, D.L. (2005) - Caterpillars of Eastern North America.  Princeton Univ. Press, N.J. & U.K. (512 pp.)  [superb color images of caterpillars with the adults as insets]
  95. WENTWORTH, T.R. (1982) - Vegetation & flora of the Mule Mts., Cochise Co., AZ in J.   AZ - NV Acad. of Science 17: 29-44.
  96. WHEELER, W.M. (1928) - Foibles of Insects and Man.  New York: A.A. Knopf (217 pp.).  [The “dry-rot” essay appears on pp. 187-204 in this book: required reading for all “scientists”!]
  97. ________ (1967) - Essays in Philosophical Biology.  New York: Russell & Russell (245 pp.).  [Chap. 6,  pp.117-142:  This was a speech delivered to the American Society of Naturalists, Boston, on 29 Dec. 1922; first published in Science, 19 Jan. 1923].  Look at the dates (nothing has changed in 9 decades).  Everything he was describing then has gotten steadily worse !!
  98. WINTER, D. (       ) - Rearing Techniques ...
  99. ZERZAN, J. (2002) - Running on Empty:  The Pathology of Civilization.  Los Angeles:  Feral House. [ISBN 092291575X]  See also Broomfield 1997, Ivey 1995 & Mattoni 1981, on related topics.
Seven Backyards

Preface

OVERVIEW

Moths and Memories

Dedication

Where Are the Specimens Now?

ASH CANYON FIRE (2011)


Background and Introduction

Elfin Forests, Worldwide: MAQUIS / FYNBOS / KWONGAN / MATORRAL / CHAPARRAL

About The Backyard Concept

Motivations: Why Publish This Material?

Summarizing How These Projects Evolved

About the Photographs

Bias in Photo Representation

Moth Identifications

Taxonomy & Classification (the names)

About Moth Families & Subfamilies

Some Thoughts About Moth Surveys

Abundance Ratings Defined (8 Categories)

About the Flight Periods

Interpretation of the Flight-Phenograms

Miscellaneous Comments on Black Lights

Peculiarities of Moth Activity

Prime Time = Full-Moon-Plus-Ten

How To Obtain Perfect (Moth) Specimens

To Kill Or Not To Kill??

Beating or Sweeping for Larvae

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS & DETERMINATIONS

Miscellaneous Tidbits Dept.

PHOTO CREDITS